New To This Edition
Make Connections Questions help students see how the different areas of biology are connected, from molecules to organisms to ecosystems.
- Each Make Connections Question challenges students to move beyond memorization and gain a deeper understanding of biological principles by asking them to relate the content of a chapter to what they learned earlier in the course.
- Make Connections Questions are integrated into each chapter in selected Concept Checks, figure legends, Impact Figures, and in the end-of-chapter assessment section. Every chapter has at least three Make Connections Questions.
- Make Connections Tutorials in MasteringBiology® connect content from two different chapters using art from the book.
Impact Figures motivate and inspire students by demonstrating the dramatic impact of recent discoveries in biology.
- Impact Figures explore high-interest topics such as induced pluripotent stem cells and regenerative medicine (Chapter 20), the discovery of Tiktaalik (Chapter 34), and the use of forensic ecology to track elephant poaching (Chapter 56).
- Captivating visuals in Impact Figures engage students.
- The Why It Matters section explains the relevance of the research to students’ lives, global problems, and the field of biology itself.
- Each Impact Figure ends with a suggested article for Further Reading and a What if? or Make Connections Question to develop critical thinking skills.
Campbell’s emphasis on evolution is more evident for students than ever before: At least one Evolution section in every chapter explicitly focuses on evolutionary aspects of the chapter material. These Evolution sections, highlighted by a new Evolution banner, demonstrate to students that evolution is central to every area of biology. Many Evolution sections contain new or updated material.
Restructured Chapter Reviews help students master the chapter content more effectively and make it easier for instructors to assign review questions that are consistent with the level of questions that are provided in the Campbell Test Bank:
- New Summary of Key Concepts Questions tie in to a main learning goal and actively engage students as they read the summary.
- All end-of-chapter questions, including the essay questions, have been reorganized according to Bloom’s Taxonomy to encourage higher-level thinking and better prepare students for the kinds of questions they will see on exams. The questions are organized into three levels: Knowledge/Comprehension, Application/Analysis, and Synthesis/Evaluation. These are the same levels used in the Campbell Test Bank.
- New Write About a Theme Questions ask students to write a short essay connecting the chapter’s content to one of the bookwide themes introduced in Chapter 1. A grading rubric are provided for students in the MasteringBiology Study Area. The same grading rubric and sample answers are provided in the MasteringBiology Instructor Resources area.
- A New MasteringBiology® section at the end of each chapter lists tutorials, activities, and questions that instructors can assign. This section also directs students to the eText and Study Area for additional resources.
Figures throughout the Ninth Edition have been updated and revised for clarity.
- New Visual Organizers emphasize the hierarchy of information in multipart figures, helping students to efficiently access the material.
- Selected figures have been rendered in a 3-D art style to enhance understanding. These figures have been carefully developed to provide a balance between realism and teaching effectiveness.
Expanded MasteringBiology® online resources include:
This section provides just a few highlights of new content and organizational improvements in Campbell BIOLOGY, Ninth Edition.
Chapter 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life
We have added a separate new theme on energy flow while retaining a theme on environmental interactions. Concept 1.3, on the scientific method, has been reframed to more accurately reflect the scientific process, with a focus on observations and hypotheses. A new Concept 1.4 discusses the value of technology to society while emphasizing the cooperative nature of science and the value of diversity among scientists.
Unit One The Chemistry of Life
For this edition, the basic chemistry is enlivened by new content connecting it to evolution, ecology, and other areas of biology. Examples of new material include omega-3 fatty acids, the isomeric forms of methamphetamine, arsenic contamination of groundwater, and the basis of mad cow disease. The burgeoning importance of nucleic acids throughout biology has prompted us to expand our coverage of DNA and RNA structures in this first unit. In fact, a general aim for the first two units is to infuse the chapters with more detail about nucleic acids, genes, and related topics. Another enhancement, in this and the next two units, is the inclusion of more computer models of important proteins in contexts where they support students’ understanding of molecular function.
Unit Two The Cell
For Chapter 6, we developed an Exploring Figure on microscopy, which includes new types of microscopy, and we added micrographs of various cell types to the Exploring Figure on eukaryotic cells. We also expanded our description of chromosome composition, with the goal of preempting some common student misconceptions about chromosomes and DNA. New connections to evolution include an introduction to the endosymbiont theory in Chapter 6 and some interesting evolutionary adaptations of cell membranes in Chapter 7. We’ve added a new section to Chapter 8 on the evolution of enzymes with new functions, which not only strengthens enzyme coverage but also provides an early introduction to the concept that mutations contribute to molecular evolution. In Chapter 9, we simplified the glycolysis figure and emphasized pyruvate oxidation as a separate step to help students focus on the main ideas. In keeping with our increased focus on global issues in the Ninth Edition, Chapter 10 has an Impact Figure on biofuels and a discussion of the possible effect of climate change on the distribution of C3 and C4 plants. In Chapter 11, we have added an Impact Figure to highlight the importance and medical relevance of G protein-coupled receptors.
Unit Three Genetics
In Chapters 13—17, we have added material to stimulate student interest–for example, a new Impact Figure on genetic testing for disease-associated mutations. As done throughout the Ninth Edition, we ask students to make connections between chapters so that they avoid the trap of compartmentalizing the information in each chapter. For instance, Chapter 15 discusses the Philadelphia chromosome associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia and asks students to connect this information to what they learned about signaling in the cell cycle in Chapter 12. Also, we encourage students to connect what they learn about DNA replication and chromosome structure in Chapter 16 to the material on chromosome behavior during the cell cycle in Chapter 12. Chapter 16 has a new figure showing a current 3-D model of the DNA replication complex, with the lagging strand looping back through it.
Chapters 18—21 are extensively updated, with the changes dominated by new genomic sequence data and discoveries about the regulation of gene expression. (The introduction to genes, genomes, and gene expression in Units One and Two should help prepare students for these revisions.) Chapter 18 includes a new section on nuclear architecture, which describes the organization of chromatin in the nucleus in relation to gene expression. The roles of various types of RNA molecules in regulation also receive special attention. In the section on cancer, we describe how technical advances can contribute to personalized cancer treatments based on the molecular characteristics of an individual's tumor. Chapter 19 discusses the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic. Chapter 20 includes advances in techniques for DNA sequencing and for obtaining induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Finally, the heavily revised Chapter 21 describes what has been learned from the sequencing of many genomes, including those of a number of human individuals.
Unit Four Mechanisms of Evolution
For this edition, we have continued to bolster our presentation of the vast evidence for evolution by adding new examples and figures that illustrate key conceptual points throughout the unit. For example, Chapter 22 now presents research data on adaptive evolution in soapberry bugs, fossil findings that shed light on the origins of cetaceans, and an Impact Figure on the rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chapter 23 examines gene flow and adaptation in songbird populations. Chapter 24 incorporates several new examples of speciation research, including reproductive isolation in mosquitofish, speciation in shrimp, and hybridization of bear species. Other changes strengthen the storyline of the unit, ensuring that the chapters flow smoothly and build to a clear overall picture of what evolution is and how it works. For instance, new connections between Chapters 24 and 25 illustrate how differences in speciation and extinction rates shape the broad patterns in the history of life. We’ve also added earlier and more discussion of “tree thinking,” the interpretation and application of phylogenetic trees, beginning in Chapter 22.
Unit Five The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity
One of our goals for the diversity unit was to expand the coverage of the scientific evidence underlying the evolutionary story told in the chapters. So, for example, Chapter 27 now presents new findings on the evolutionary origin of bacterial flagella. In keeping with our increased emphasis on big-picture “tree thinking,” we’ve added an “evogram” on tetrapod evolution in Chapter 34. (An evogram is a diagram illustrating the multiple lines of evidence that support the hypothesis shown in an evolutionary tree.) In addition, to help engage students, we’ve included new applications and woven more ecological information into our discussions of groups of organisms. Examples include new material on global growth of photosynthetic protists (Chapter 28), endangered molluscs (Chapter 33), and the impact of a pathogenic chytrid fungus on amphibian population declines (Chapters 31 and 34).
Unit Six Plant Form and Function
Plant biology is in a transitional phase; some professors prefer strong coverage of classical botany while others seek more in-depth coverage of the molecular biology of plants. In developing the Ninth Edition, we have continued to balance the old and the new to provide students with a basic understanding of plant anatomy and function while highlighting dynamic areas of plant research and the many important connections between plants and other organisms. One major revision goal was to provide more explicit discussion of the evolutionary aspects of plant biology, such as the coevolution of flowering plants and animal pollinators (Chapter 38). Updates include new findings in plant development in Concept 35.5 and new material on the dynamism of plant architecture as it relates to resource acquisition in Chapter 36.
Unit Seven Animal Form and Function
In revising this unit, we strove to introduce physiological systems through a comparative approach that underscores how adaptations are linked to shared physiological challenges. In particular, we have highlighted the interrelationship of the endocrine and nervous systems at multiple points in the unit, helping students appreciate how these two forms of communication link tissues, organs, and individuals. Other revisions aim to keep students focused on fundamental concepts amid the details of complex systems. For example, many figures have been reconceived to emphasize key information, including new figures comparing single and double circulation (Chapter 42) and examining the function of antigen receptors (Chapter 43), as well as new Exploring Figures on the vertebrate kidney (Chapter 44) and the structure and function of the human eye (Chapter 50). Chapter 43 has been significantly revised to support students’ conceptual understanding of basic immunological responses and the key cellular players. Throughout the unit, new state-of-the-art images and material on current and compelling topics–such as circadian rhythms (Chapter 40), novel strains of influenza (Chapter 43), the effects of climate change on animal reproductive cycles (Chapter 46), and advances in understanding brain plasticity and function (Chapter 49)–will help engage students and encourage them to make connections beyond the text.
Unit Eight Ecology
Our revision was informed by the fact that biologists are increasingly asked to apply their knowledge to help solve global problems, such as climate change, that already are profoundly affecting life on Earth. As part of our increased emphasis on global ecology in this edition, we have made significant changes to Unit Eight’s organization and content. The organizational changes begin with the introductory chapter of the unit (Chapter 52), which includes a new Key Concept 52.1: “Earth’s climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly.” Introducing the global nature of climate and its effects on life at the beginning of the chapter provides a logical foundation for the rest of the material. New content in Chapters 53 and 54 highlights factors that limit population growth, the ecological importance of disease, positive interactions among organisms, and biodiversity. Chapter 55 now explores restoration ecology together with ecosystem ecology because successful restoration efforts depend on understanding ecosystem structure and function. Finally, the new title of the unit’s capstone, Chapter 56, reflects its emphasis on the combined importance of conservation and our changing Earth: “Conservation Biology and Global Change.” Several new Impact Figures in the unit show students how ecologists apply biological knowledge and ecological theory at all scales to understand and solve problems in the world around them.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life
I. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
2. The Chemical Context of Life
3. Water and Life
4. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
5. The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
II. THE CELL
6. A Tour of the Cell
7. Membrane Structure and Function
8. An Introduction to Metabolism
9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
11. Cell Communication
12. The Cell Cycle
13. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
14. Mendel and the Gene Idea
15. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
16. The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
17. From Gene to Protein
18. Regulation of Gene Expression
21. Genomes and Their Evolution
IV. MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION
22. Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
23. The Evolution of Populations
24. The Origin of Species
25. The History of Life on Earth
V. THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
26. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
27. Bacteria and Archaea
29. Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land
30. Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants
32. An Overview of Animal Diversity
33. An Introduction to Invertebrates
34. The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates
VI. PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION
35. Plant Structure, Growth, and Development
36. Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants
37. Soil and Plant Nutrition
38. Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology
39. Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals
VII. ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION
40. Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
41. Animal Nutrition
42. Circulation and Gas Exchange
43. The Immune System
44. Osmoregulation and Excretion
45. Hormones and the Endocrine System
46. Animal Reproduction
47. Animal Development
48. Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling
49. Nervous Systems
50. Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
51. Animal Behavior
52. An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere
53. Population Ecology
54. Community Ecology
55. Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology
56. Conservation Biology and Global Change