- Positive Psychology
- ISBN-10: 0131744410 • ISBN-13: 9780131744417
- ©2009 • Pearson • Cloth, 360 pp
Published 09/24/2008 • Instock
This book is designed to serve as a primary text for an undergraduate college course in positive psychology. Consistent with the “nuts and bolts” presentation of positive psychology, in many places throughout the book the authors provide detailed coverage of individual research studies, methodological issues and theoretical controversies.
The first goal in writing this book was to make positive psychology accessible to undergraduate students by reviewing and summarizing the major empirical findings and theories within the major areas of positive psychology. Specifically, the authors hope to bridge the gap between an undergraduate audience and the professional level of source material. A second goal was to present the core topics of positive psychology in a way that preserves the richness and excitement of findings in this new area of psychology. Positive psychology addresses important questions about how we lead our lives, find happiness and satisfaction in life, and deal with life’s challenges. As a result, the subject matter of positive psychology has high intrinsic interest. The authors hope to engage and maintain this interest by making frequent connections and applications to the everyday lives of readers.
A third goal was to present positive psychology without compromising the complexities of research and theory That is, the goal was to present positive psychology as it is -- a work in progress. Put another way, this book is a “nuts and bolts” view of positive psychology with a primary emphasis on the results of empirical studies and the theories that help explain them.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 -What is Positive Psychology?
- Traditional Psychology- Why the Negative Focus?
- Negatives Aspects Perceived as More Authentic & ‘Real”
- Negatives as More Important
- The Disease Model
- Health Psychology
- Focus on Research: The Nun Study: Living Longer Through
- Clinical Psychology
- Developmental Psychology
- Survey Research and Subjective Well-Being
- Social/Personality Psychology and the Psychology of Religion
- Positive Psychology: Assumptions, Goals and Definitions
- Life Above Zero
- Culture and the Meaning of a Good Life
- Why Now?
-Two Final Notes
- Positive Psychology is Not Opposed to Psychology
- Positive Psychology and the Status Quo
Chapter 2 — The Meaning and Measure of Happiness
- Why a Psychology of Well-Being?
- Objective versus Subjective Measures
- Negative versus Positive Functioning
- What is Happiness? Two Traditions
- Hedonic Happiness
- Eudaimonic Happiness
- Focus on Research: Positive Affect and a Meaningful Life
- Subjective Well-Being: The Hedonic Basis of Happiness
- Measuring Subjective Well-Being
- Life Satisfaction
- Positive Affect and Negative Affect
- Focus on Research: Is Your Future Revealed in Your Smile?
- Issues in the Study of Affect
- Global Measures of Happiness
- Reliability and Validity of SWB Measures
- Experience Sampling Method
- Focus on Method: How Do We Spend Our Time? The Day
- On-Line versus Global Measures of SWB
- Self-Realization: The Eudaimonic Basis of Happiness
-Psychological Well-Being and Positive Functioning
- Emotional Well-Being
- Psychological Well-Being
- Social Well-Being
- Need Fulfillment and Self-Determination Theory
- Focus on Research: What Makes a “Good” Day?
- Comparing Hedonic and Eudaimonic Views of HappinessChapter 3 - Positive Emotions and Well-Being
- What are Positive Emotions?
- Focus on Theory: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive
- Positive Emotions and Health Resources
- Physical Resources
- Psychological Resources
- Positive Emotions and Coping with Stress
-Focus on application: Finding the Positive in the Negative
- Positive Traits and Health
- Social Resources
- The Limits of Positive Emotions
- Positive Emotions and Well-Being
- Happiness and Positive Behaviors
- Positive Emotions and Success
- Positive Emotions and Flourishing
- A General Theory of Positivity?
- Cultivating Positive Emotions
- Flow Experiences
Chapter 4 - Resilience
-What is Resilience?
- Developmental Perspectives
- Clinical Perspectives
- Resilience Research
- Sources of Resilience
- The Dangers of Blaming the Victim
- Sources of Resilience in Childhood
- Focus on Research: Resilience among Disadvantaged Youth
- Sources of Resilience in Adulthood and Later Life
- Successful Aging
- Growth Through Trauma
- Negative Effects of Trauma
- Positive Effects of Trauma
- Changes in Perception
- Changes in Relationships
- Changes in Life Priorities
- Explanations for Growth through Trauma
- Focus on Research: In their Own Words — Coping With Loss
Chapter 5 - Happiness and the Facts of Life
- Happiness Across the Life-Span
- Focus on Research: Happiness and Where we Live
- Stability in Well-Being Despite Life Changes
- Temperament and Subjective Well-Being
- Frequency, Intensity and Balance of Positive and
- Negative Emotions
- Measurement and Definitional Issues
-The Shifting Basis of Life Satisfaction
- Gender and Happiness
- Gender differences in Emotional Experience
- Negative Emotions
- Positive Moods and Behaviors
- Explaining the Paradox of Gender
- Marriage and Happiness
- Benefits of Marriage
- Selection Effects
- Focus on Research: Are We Still Happy After the
- Gender Differences in the Benefits of Marraige
- Other Facts of Life
- Physical and Mental Health
- Work and Unemployment
- Intelligence and Education
- Race, Ethnicity and Stigma
Chapter 6 — Money, Happiness and Culture
- The Paradox of Affluence
- Well-Being Across Nations
- Between-Nations Comparisons
- Within-Nation Comparisons
- Interpreting National Differences
- Understanding Money and Happiness
- Focus on Research: Do Happy People Make More Money?
- Why Doesn’t Money Matter More?
- Genetics and Personality
- Adaptation and the Hedonic Treadmill
- Focus on Research: Lottery Winners and Accident Victims
- Rising Expectations and The “Tyranny of the Unnecessary”
- Social Comparisons
- Excessive Materialism
- The Meaning of Happiness: Universal or Relative?
- The Culture and Well-being
- The Self in Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures
- Culture and the Meaning of Happiness
- The American-Individualistic Style of Happiness
- The Asian-Collectivist Style of Happiness
- Cultural Ideals
- Moderation in Emotional Expression
- Group Pride and Sensitivity
- Self-Critical Attitudes
- False Humility or Social Sensitivity?
Chapter 7 - Personal Goals as Windows to Well
- Goals Connect “Having” and “Doing”
- What are Personal Goals?
- Defining Personal Goals
- Goals and Related Motivational Concepts
- Measuring Personal Goals
- Goal Organization
- The Search for Universal Human Motives
- Goals and the Fulfillment of Basic Human Needs
- Focus on Research: An Empirical Method for Assessing Universal Needs
- Goals Expressing Fundamental Values
- Personal Goals Across Cultures
- Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Goals
- Physical versus Self-Transcendent Goals
- The Personalization of Goals in Self-Concept
- What Goals Contribute Most to Well-Being?
- Goal Progress, Achievement and Importance
-The Matching Hypothesis
- What Explains the Matching Hypothesis?
-Personal Goals and Self-Realization
- Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Goals
- Autonomous versus Controlled Motivation
- Focus on Research: Happiness and Success in College
- Materialism and Its Discontents
- Why are Materialists Unhappy?
- The Content of Materialistic Goals
-The What and Why of Materialistic Goals
- Compensation for Insecurity
- Why Do People Adopt Materialistic Values?
- Consumer Culture
- Psychological Insecurity
- Materialism and Death
- Affluence and Materialism
- Are We All Materialists?
Chapter 8 - Self-Regulation and Control
-The Value of Self-Control
- Personal Goals and Self-Regulation
- Self-Discrepancy Theory
- Control Theory
- Planning for Self-Regulation Success
- Focus on Research: Planning Makes a Difference
- Why Planning Helps
- Automatic Activation of Goal Behaviors
- Conserving Self-Control Resources
- Commitment and Confidence
- Goals That Create Self-Regulation Problems
- Approach versus Avoidance Goals
- Why Avoidance Goals are Difficult to Regulate
- Goal Conflict
-Trivial Pursuits and Magnificent Obsessions
-Focus on theory: Thinking About the Meaning of Our Actions
- Individual differences in Goal Level Identification
- Goal Difficulty
- Ironic Effects of Mental Control
-Mental Load and the Paradoxes of Control
- Everyday Explanations for Self-Control Failure
- What Makes a Good Excuse?
- Advantages of Excuses
- Disadvantages of Excuses
- Irresistible Impulses
- Beliefs About Control
- Activation of Impulsive and Reflective Control Systems
- Individual Differences in Self-Control
- Resisting Temptations
- Focus on Research: The Costs and Benefits of Procrastination
- Giving Up
Chapter 9 — Positive Traits
- What Makes a Trait Positive?
- Personality, Emotions and Biology
- Positive and Negative Affectivity
- Genetics and Temperament
- Personality and Happiness: “The Big Five”
-Teasing Out Cause and Effect
- Personality and Eudaimonic Well-Being
- Neurobiology and Approach/Avoidance Motives
- Genetics and Change
- Positive Beliefs
-The World Through Happy and Unhappy Eyes
- Self Esteem
- Self-Esteem and Happiness
- Is Self-Esteem All You Need?
- Self-Esteem’s Darker Side
- Personal Control
- Optimism as a Disposition
- Optimism as Explanatory Style
- How Optimism Works
- Varieties of Optimism and Pessimism
- Focus on Research and Theory: Unresolved Issues in the Study of Optimism
- Positive Illusions
Chapter 10 — Virtue and Strengths of Character
- Developing a Classification of Human Virtues
- Virtues and Character Strengths
- Measuring Strengths of Character
- Wisdom as a Foundational Strength and Virtue
- What is Wisdom?
- Theories of Wisdom
- Balance Theory
- Wisdom as Expert Knowledge in the Conduct of Life
- Wisdom in Action: The SOC Model of Effective Life Management
-Focus on Theory: Wisdom or Self-control as Master
-Transcendence: Religion and Spirituality
- The Search for Meaning
- Religion and Spirituality: The Diversity of Views
- Defining Religion and Spirituality
- Religion/Spirituality and Well-Being
- Religious Orientation
- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religious Orientation
- Quest Religious Orientation
- Attachment Theory and Relationship to God
- Styles of Religious Coping
- Explaining Religion versus Explaining Religion Away
-Religion and Virtue
- Focus on Research: Increasing Well-Being by Counting Your Blessings
Chapter 11 — Close Relationships and Well-Being
- Defining Close Relationships
- Exchange and Communal Relationships
- On the Lighter Side
- Humor and Teasing
- Focus on Research: Sharing What Goes Right in Life
- Friendship and Romantic Love
- Varieties of Love
- Passionate versus Companionate Love
- Triangular Theory of Love
- Cultural Context of Love, Marriage and Divorce
- Why Don’t Marriages Last?
- Increased Freedom and Decreased Constraints
- Getting Married and Staying Married: Is Love the Answer?
- Realism or Idealism?
- Satisfaction and Conflict
- What People Bring to Romantic Relationships
- Attachment Styles
- Conflict and Communication
- Focus on Research: The Power of the “Bad”
- Implicit Theories & Expectations
- Food for Thought: Contours of a Happy Marriage
- What Can Happy Couples Tell Us?
- Humor and Compatibility
Chapter 12 — Life Above Zero
- Positive Psychology Revisited
- Interconnection of the “Good” and the “ Bad”
- Contours of a Positive Life: Meaning and Means
- Pleasant Life
- Engaged Life
- Meaningful Life
- Intentional Activities and Goals
- Developing and Expressing Virtue
- Using Positive Psychology to Treat Depression
- Increasing Psychological well-being
- “Minding” Close Relationships
- Mindfulness and Well-Being
- What is Mindfulness?
- Mindfulness as an Antidote for Mindlessness
- Mindfulness as Present Centered Attention &Awareness
-Focus on Research: Getting to Life’s bottom Line
- Mindfulness Meditation
- Attributes of Mindful Awareness
- Mindfulness and Positive Psychology Research
- Mindfulness and Psychotherapy
- East-West and Positive Psychology
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