About This Product
For introductory courses in cartography.
This comprehensive text blends broad coverage of basic methods for symbolizing spatial data with an introduction to cutting-edge data visualization techniques. The authors’ balanced presentation clearly contrasts different approaches for symbolizing spatial data, in addition to individual mapping techniques.
Features• Differing approaches for symbolizing spatial data are contrasted clearly. Many texts present individual mapping techniques, but those texts generally fail to contrast the different approaches (see section 5.4).
• A comprehensive foundation of various statistical and graphical approaches that can be used in concert with mapping techniques is provided (see Chapter 3). Other books cover some of this material, but not as thoroughly.
• Data classification coverage (Chapter 4) clearly explains and illustrates the differences among various data classification techniques. The related technique of cluster analysis is covered in Chapter 18.
• A separate chapter on generalization (Chapter 6) considers a variety of basic generalization operations.
• An extensive introduction to the Earth’s coordinate system and map projections is offered that includes chapters on how to select an appropriate projection (Chapters 7–9). No other text provides step-by-step guidelines on how to select map projections for specific mapping situations.
• The most comprehensive description of map elements and their appropriate use of any cartographic textbook is offered in the chapter on map elements and typography (Chapter 11).
• Clear descriptions of effective, efficient map design and the practical application of design theories are discussed in the chapter on cartographic design (Chapter 12).
• Approaches for selecting appropriate color schemes for choropleth maps are discussed with a broad range of factors and numerous sample maps.
• Various algorithms for interpolating spatial data, including kriging, are discussed in greater depth than most other cartographic or GIS texts.
• Numerous approaches to symbolizing the Earth’s topography—including recently developed techniques such as those of Tom Patterson and the physical models developed by Solid Terrain Modeling—are discussed.
• Extensive discussion of bivariate and multivariate mapping, topics not covered in other cartographic texts, is provided.
• Cutting-edge topics in cartography are discussed in several chapters (21 to 26). No other text has individual chapters on so many up-to-date topics.
• Each chapter includes an extensive set of annotated references for further reading; the book as a whole includes a grand total of approximately 900 references.
New To This Edition• A four-part organization replaces the introduction and three major divisions used in the second edition. The four divisions include Introduction, Principles of Cartography, Mapping Techniques, and Geovisualization.
• The revised Introduction section now includes an introductory chapter and chapters entitled “A Historical Perspective on Thematic Cartography” and “Statistical and Graphical Foundation.”
• A restructured (and renamed) “Historical Perspective” chapter now focuses on the broader history of thematic cartography along with U.S. academic cartography.
• The “Data Classification” chapter now precedes the “Principles of Symbolization” chapter, based on user feedback.
• The former “Elements of Cartographic Design” chapter is now divided into two chapters: “Map Elements and Typography” and “Cartographic Design.” The “Cartographic Design” chapter now includes a real-world map design problem (designing a real estate site suitability map) that utilizes the concepts, rules, and guidelines set forth in the “Map Elements and Typography” chapter, as well as the design procedures discussed in the cartographic design chapter.
• Extensive changes to the Mapping Techniques section reflect the most recent developments in the field.
—Many of the same techniques that were covered in the second edition are discussed.
—Because it is now more commonly used, dasymetric mapping is given its own chapter.
—“Symbolizing Topography” has been moved from the Mapping Techniques section to the Geovisualization section because of its closer links with geovisualization (and has been renamed “Visualizing Terrain”).
—The cluster analysis section has been moved from the “Data Classification” chapter to the “Multivariate Mapping” chapter, in the belief that the technique is more closely tied to multivariate mapping than to data classification.
—The second edition’s “Additional Techniques” chapter has been renamed “Cartograms and Flow Maps,” and now focuses solely on these techniques.
• A new “Web Mapping” chapter replaces “Electronic Atlases and Multimedia” in the Geovisualization section. Along with material on electronic atlases, this chapter covers a broad range of Web mapping applications and contrasts these applications using five continua: preexisting maps versus custom-tailored maps, low interaction versus high interaction, distributed data versus user-contributed data, updated data versus non-updated data, and animated maps versus static maps.
• The most recent results of cartographic research and software development are integrated throughout, with less-relevant material deleted.
—The “Scale and Generalization” chapter includes some recent developments occurring at the National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) and a brief section on MapShaper, a free Web-based generalization service.
—In the “Principles of Color” chapter, several illustrations that appeared in the second edition have been deleted along with discussion of frame buffers and color display systems.
—The “Map Animation” chapter describes several new animation techniques that have been developed (e.g., Harrower and Sheesley’s (2005, 2007) work with fly-bys; Goldsberry’s (2004) stabilized rate of change maps; Peterson and Wendel’s animation of air traffic (http://maps.unomaha.edu/AnimatedFlightAtlas/); and Brownrigg’s (2005) use of 3-D space). This chapter also includes recent research on the effectiveness of animation (e.g., Griffin et al. 2006; Harrower and Fabrikant 2007).
—The “Data Exploration” chapter eliminates the ArcView/ArcGIS, Vis5D, and Transform sections, replacing them with sections on GeoDa, ESTAT, and IDV.
—The “Virtual Environment” chapter introduces several recent developments, including work with the GeoWall (e.g., Anthamatten and Ziegler 2006); GoogleEarth (this is also covered in the “Web Mapping” chapter); Digital Globes (e.g., Riedl 2007); and recent tests of the effectiveness of virtual environments (e.g., Luebbering and Carstensen 2007).
—The “Trends in Research and Development” chapter now includes sections on using senses other than vision to interpret spatial patterns; visual analytics, which involves a synthesis of visualization and analytical methods; and mobile mapping (and associated location-based services).
Table of Contents
1. Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization
1.1 What is a Thematic Map?
1.2 How are Thematic Maps Used?
1.3 Basic Steps for Communicating Map Information
1.4 Consequences of Technological Change in Cartography
1.6 Related Techniques
1.7 Cognitive Issues in Cartography
1.8 Social and Ethical Issues in Cartography
2. A Historical Perspective on Thematic Cartography
2.1 A Brief History of Cartography
2.2 History of Thematic Cartography
2.3 History of U.S. Academic Cartography
2.4 The Paradigms of American Cartography
3. Statistical and Graphical Foundation
3.1 Population and Sample
3.2 Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics
3.3 Methods for Analyzing Spatial Data, Ignoring Location
3.4 Numerical Summaries in Which Location Is an Integral Component
Principles of Cartography
4. Data Classification
4.1 Common Methods of Data Classification
4.2 Using Spatial Context to Simplify Choropleth Maps
4.3 Using Multiple Criteria to Determine Class Intervals
5. Principles of Symbolization
5.1 Nature of Geographic Phenomena
5.2 Levels of Measurement
5.3 Visual Variables
5.4 Comparison of Choropleth, Proportional Symbol, Isopleth, and Dot Mapping
5.5 Selecting Visual Variables for Choropleth Maps
6. Scale and Generalization
6.1 Geographic and Cartographic Scale
6.2 Definitions of Generalization
6.3 Models of Generalization
6.4 The Fundamental Operations of Generalization
6.5 An Example of Generalization
6.6 MapShaper: A Free Web-Based Generalization Service
7. The Earth and Its Coordinate System
7.1 Basic Characteristics of the Earth’s Graticule
7.2 A Brief History of Latitude and Longitude
7.3 Determining the Earth’s Size and Shape
8. Elements of Map Projections
8.1 The Map Projection Concept
8.2 The Reference Globe and Developable Surfaces
8.3 The Mathematics of Map Projections
8.4 Map Projection Characteristics
8.5 Distortion on Map Projections
8.6 Projection Properties
9. Selecting an Appropriate Map Projection
9.1 Potential Selection Guidelines
9.2 Examples of Selecting Projections
10. Principles of Color
10.1 How Color Is Processed by the Human Visual System
10.2 Hardware Considerations in Producing Color Maps for Graphics Displays
10.3 Models for Specifying Color
11. Map Elements and Typography
11.1 Alignment and Centering
11.2 Map Elements
12. Cartographic Design
12.1 Cartographic Design
12.2 Case Study: Real Estate Site Suitability Map
13. Map Reproduction
13.1 Reproduction Versus Dissemination
13.2 Planning Ahead
13.3 Map Editing
13.4 Raster Image Processing for Print Reproduction
13.5 Screening for Print Reproduction
13.6 Aspects of Color Printing
13.7 High-Volume Print Reproduction
13.8 Nonprint Reproduction and Dissemination
14. Choropleth Mapping
14.1 Selecting Appropriate Data
14.2 Data Classification
14.3 Factors for Selecting a Color Scheme
14.4 Details of Color Specification
14.5 Legend Design
14.6 Classed Versus Unclassed Mapping
15. Dasymetric Mapping
15.1 Selecting Appropriate Data and Ancillary Information
15.2 Eicher and Brewer’s Work
15.3 Mennis and Hultgren’s Intelligent Dasymetric Mapping (IDM)
15.5 Langford and Unwin’s Generalized Dasymetric Approach
16. Isarithmic Mapping
16.1 Selecting Appropriate Data
16.2 Manual Interpolation
16.3 Automated Interpolation for True Point Data
16.4 Criteria for Selecting an Interpolation Method for True Point Data
16.5 Limitations of Automated Interpolation Approaches
16.6 Tobler’s Pycnophylactic Approach: An Interpolation Method for Conceptual Point Data
17. Proportional Symbol and Dot Mapping
17.1 Selecting Appropriate Data For Proportional Symbol Maps
17.2 Kinds of Proportional Symbols
17.3 Scaling Proportional Symbols
17.4 Legend Design for Proportional Symbol Maps
17.5 Handling Overlap on Proportional Symbol Maps
17.6 Redundant Symbols
17.7 Selecting Appropriate Data for Dot Maps
17.8 Creating a Dot Map
18. Multivariate Mapping
18.1 Bivariate Mapping
18.2 Multivariate Mapping Involving Three or More Attributes
18.3 Cluster Analysis
19. Cartograms and Flow Maps
19.2 Flow Mapping
20. Visualizing Terrain
20.1 Nature of the Data
20.2 Vertical Views
20.3 Oblique Views
20.4 Physical Models
21. Map Animation
21.1 Early Developments
21.2 Visual Variables and Categories of Animation
21.3 Examples of Animations
21.4 Using 3-D Space to Display Temporal Data
21.5 Does Animation Work?
22. Data Exploration
22.1 Goals of Data Exploration
22.2 Methods of Data Exploration
22.3 Examples of Data Exploration Software
23. Visualizing Uncertainty
23.1 Basic Elements of Uncertainty
23.2 General Methods for Depicting Uncertainty
23.3 Visual Variables for Depicting Uncertainty
23.4 Applications of Visualizing Uncertainty
23.5 Studies of the Effectiveness of Methods for Visualizing Uncertainty
24. Web Mapping
24.1 A Brief History of Web Mapping
24.2 Cartographic Web Sites: A Classification
24.3 Tying Together the Five Continua
25. Virtual Environments
25.1 Defining Virtual and Mixed Environments
25.2 Technologies for Creating Virtual Environments
25.3 The Four “I” Factors of Virtual Environments
25.4 Applications of Geospatial Virtual Environments
25.5 Research Issues in Geospatial Virtual Environments
25.6 Developments in Mixed Environments
25.7 Health, Safety, and Social Issues
26. Trends in Research and Development
26.1 Linked Micromap Plots and Conditioned Choropleth Maps
26.2 Using Senses Other Than Vision to Interpret Spatial Patterns
26.3 Collaborative Geovisualization
26.4 Multimodal Interfaces
26.5 Information Visualization and Spatialization
26.6 Spatial Data Mining
26.7 Visual Analytics
26.8 Mobile Mapping and Location-Based Services
26.9 Keeping Pace with Recent Developments
Appendix: Lengths of One Degree Latitude and Longitude