## Table of Contents

**Practical Applications of Electrical Engineering Principles vi**

**Preface xi**

1 **Introduction 1**

1.1 Overview of Electrical Engineering 2

1.2 Circuits, Currents, and Voltages 6

1.3 Power and Energy 13

1.4 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 16

1.5 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 19

1.6 Introduction to Circuit Elements 22

1.7 Introduction to Circuits 30

Summary 34

Problems 35

2 **Resistive Circuits 46**

2.1 Resistances in Series and Parallel 47

2.2 Network Analysis by Using Series and Parallel Equivalents 51

2.3 Voltage-Divider and Current-Divider Circuits 55

2.4 Node-Voltage Analysis 60

2.5 Mesh-Current Analysis 79

2.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 88

2.7 Superposition Principle 101

2.8 Wheatstone Bridge 104

Summary 106

Problems 108

3 **Inductance and Capacitance 124**

3.1 Capacitance 125

3.2 Capacitances in Series and Parallel 132

3.3 Physical Characteristics of Capacitors 134

3.4 Inductance 138

3.5 Inductances in Series and Parallel 143

3.6 Practical Inductors 144

3.7 Mutual Inductance 147

3.8 Symbolic Integration and Differentiation Using MATLAB 148

Summary 156

Problems 157

4 **Transients 166**

4.1 First-Order *RC *Circuits 167

4.2 DC Steady State 171

4.3 *RL *Circuits 173

4.4 *RC *and *RL *Circuits with General Sources 177

4.5 Second-Order Circuits 183

4.6 Transient Analysis Using the MATLAB Symbolic Toolbox 196

Summary 203

Problems 204

5 **Steady-State Sinusoidal Analysis 215**

5.1 Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages 216

5.2 Phasors 222

5.3 Complex Impedances 228

5.4 Circuit Analysis with Phasors and Complex Impedances 232

5.5 Power inAC Circuits 238

Complex Power 244

5.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 251

5.7 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 256

5.8 AC Analysis Using MATLAB 268

Summary 272

Problems 273

6 **Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance 286**

6.1 Fourier Analysis, Filters, and Transfer Functions 287

6.2 First-Order Lowpass Filters 295

6.3 Decibels, the Cascade Connection, and Logarithmic Frequency Scales 300

6.4 Bode Plots 304

6.5 First-Order Highpass Filters 307

6.6 Series Resonance 311

6.7 Parallel Resonance 316

6.8 Ideal and Second-Order Filters 319

6.9 Transfer Functions and Bode Plots with MATLAB 325

6.10 Digital Signal Processing 330

Summary 339

Problems 341

7 **Logic Circuits 355**

7.1 Basic Logic Circuit Concepts 356

7.2 Representation of Numerical Data in Binary Form 359

7.3 Combinatorial Logic Circuits 367

7.4 Synthesis of Logic Circuits 374

7.5 Minimization of Logic Circuits 381

7.6 Sequential Logic Circuits 385

Summary 396

Problems 397

8 **Microcomputers 408**

8.1 Computer Organization 409

8.2 Memory Types 412

8.3 Digital Process Control 414

8.4 The 68HC11 Microcontroller 417

8.5 The Instruction Set and Addressing Modes for the 68HC11 422

8.6 Assembly-Language Programming 430

Summary 435

Problems 436

9 **Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems 441**

9.1 Measurement Concepts and Sensors 442

9.2 Signal Conditioning 447

9.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 454

9.4 LabVIEW 457

Summary 470

Problems 471

10 **Diodes 475**

10.1 Basic Diode Concepts 476

10.2 Load-Line Analysis of Diode Circuits 479

10.3 Zener-Diode Voltage-Regulator Circuits 482

10.4 Ideal-Diode Model 486

10.5 Piecewise-Linear Diode Models 488

10.6 Rectifier Circuits 491

10.7 Wave-Shaping Circuits 496

10.8 Linear Small-Signal Equivalent

Circuits 501

Summary 506

Problems 507

11 **Amplifiers: Specifications and External Characteristics 519**

11.1 Basic Amplifier Concepts 520

11.2 Cascaded Amplifiers 525

11.3 Power Supplies and Efficiency 528

11.4 Additional Amplifier Models 531

11.5 Importance of Amplifier Impedances in Various Applications 534

11.6 Ideal Amplifiers 537

11.7 Frequency Response 538

11.8 LinearWaveform Distortion 543

11.9 Pulse Response 547

11.10 Transfer Characteristic and Nonlinear Distortion 550

11.11 Differential Amplifiers 552

11.12 Offset Voltage, Bias Current, and Offset Current 556

Summary 561

Problems 562

12 **Field-Effect Transistors 574**

12.1 NMOS and PMOS Transistors 575

12.2 Load-Line Analysis of a Simple NMOS Amplifier 582

12.3 Bias Circuits 585

12.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 588

12.5 Common-Source Amplifiers 593

12.6 Source Followers 596

12.7 CMOS Logic Gates 601

Summary 606

Problems 607

13 **Bipolar Junction Transistors 615**

13.1 Current and Voltage Relationships 616

13.2 Common-Emitter Characteristics 619

13.3 Load-Line Analysis of a Common-Emitter Amplifier 620

13.4 *pnp *Bipolar Junction Transistors 626

13.5 Large-Signal DC Circuit Models 628

13.6 Large-Signal DC Analysis of BJT Circuits 631

13.7 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 639

13.8 Common-Emitter Amplifiers 641

13.9 Emitter Followers 646

Summary 652

Problems 653

14 **Operational Amplifiers 663**

14.1 Ideal Operational Amplifiers 664

14.2 Inverting Amplifiers 665

14.3 Noninverting Amplifiers 672

14.4 Design of Simple Amplifiers 675

14.5 Op-Amp Imperfections in the Linear Range of Operation 680

14.6 Nonlinear Limitations 684

14.7 DC Imperfections 689

14.8 Differential and Instrumentation Amplifiers 693

14.9 Integrators and Differentiators 695

14.10 Active Filters 698

Summary 703

Problems 704

15 **Magnetic Circuits and Transformers 716**

15.1 Magnetic Fields 717

15.2 Magnetic Circuits 726

15.3 Inductance and Mutual Inductance 731

15.4 Magnetic Materials 735

15.5 Ideal Transformers 739

15.6 Real Transformers 746

Summary 751

Problems 751

16 **DC Machines 762**

16.1 Overview of Motors 763

16.2 Principles of DC Machines 772

16.3 Rotating DC Machines 777

16.4 Shunt-Connected and Separately Excited DC Motors 783

16.5 Series-Connected DC Motors 788

16.6 Speed Control of DC Motors 792

16.7 DC Generators 796

Summary 801

Problems 802

17 **AC Machines 811**

17.1 Three-Phase Induction Motors 812

17.2 Equivalent-Circuit and Performance Calculations for Induction Motors 820

17.3 Synchronous Machines 829

17.4 Single-Phase Motors 841

17.5 Stepper Motors and Brushless DC

Motors 844

Summary 846

Problems 847

** **

**APPENDICES**

A **Complex Numbers 853**

Summary 860

Problems 860

B **Nominal Values and the Color Code for Resistors 862**

C **The Fundamentals of Engineering Examination 864**

D **Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis with SPICE-Based Software 868**

E **Answers for the Practice Tests 870**

F **Software and On-Line Student Resources 878**

G **OrCAD 10.5 Tutorial**

Posted at www.pearsonhighered.com/hambley

**Index 881**