## Table of Contents

**Chapter 1 Introduction: Waves and Phasors**

1-1 Historical Timeline

1-1.1 EM in the Classical Era

1-1.2 EM in the Modern Era

1-2 Dimensions, Units, and Notation

1-3 The Nature of Electromagnetism

1-3.1 The Gravitational Force: A Useful Analogue

1-3.2 Electric Fields

1-3.3 Magnetic Fields

1-3.4 Static and Dynamic Fields

1-4 Traveling Waves

1-4.1 Sinusoidal Waves in a Lossless Medium

1-4.2 Sinusoidal Waves in a Lossy Medium

1-5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

1-6 Review of Complex Numbers

TB1 LED Lighting

1-7 Review of Phasors

1-7.1 Solution Procedure

1-7.2 Traveling Waves in the Phasor Domain

TB2 Solar Cells

**Chapter 2 Transmission Lines **

2-1 General Considerations

2-1.1 The Role of Wavelength

2-1.2 Propagation Modes

2-2 Lumped-Element Model

2-3 Transmission-Line Equations

2-4 Wave Propagation on a Transmission Line

2-5 The Lossless Microstrip Line

2-6 The Lossless Transmission Line: General Considerations

2-6.1 Voltage Reflection Coefficient

2-6.2 Standing Waves

2-7 Wave Impedance of the Lossless Line

TB3 Microwave Ovens

2-8 Special Cases of the Lossless Line

2-8.1 Short-Circuited Line

2-8.2 Open-Circuited Line

2-8.3 Application of Short-Circuit/ Open-Circuit Technique

2-8.4 Lines of Length *l *= *nλ/*2

2-8.5 Quarter-Wavelength Transformer

2-8.6 Matched Transmission Line: *Z*L = *Z*0

2-9 Power Flow on a Lossless Transmission Line

2-9.1 Instantaneous Power

2-9.2 Time-Average Power

2-10 The Smith Chart

2-10.1 Parametric Equations

2-10.2 Wave Impedance

2-10.3 SWR, Voltage Maxima and Minima

2-10.4 Impedance to Admittance Transformations

2-11 Impedance Matching

2-11.1 Lumped-Element Matching

2-11.2 Single-Stub Matching

2-12 Transients on Transmission Lines

2-12.1 Transient Response

2-12.2 Bounce Diagrams

TB4 EM Cancer Zappers

**Chapter 3 Vector Analysis **

3-1 Basic Laws of Vector Algebra

3-1.1 Equality of Two Vectors

3-1.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction

3-1.3 Position and Distance Vectors

3-1.4 Vector Multiplication

3-1.5 Scalar and Vector Triple Products

3-2 Orthogonal Coordinate Systems

3-2.1 Cartesian Coordinates

3-2.2 Cylindrical Coordinates

3-2.3 Spherical Coordinates

TB5 Global Positioning System

3-3 Transformations between Coordinate Systems

3-3.1 Cartesian to Cylindrical Transformations

3-3.2 Cartesian to Spherical Transformations

3-3.3 Cylindrical to Spherical Transformations

3-3.4 Distance between Two Points

3-4 Gradient of a Scalar Field

3-4.1 Gradient Operator in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

3-4.2 Properties of the Gradient Operator

3-5 Divergence of a Vector Field

TB6 X-Ray Computed Tomography

3-6 Curl of a Vector Field

3-6.1 Vector Identities Involving the Curl

3-6.2 Stokes’s Theorem

3-7 Laplacian Operator

**Chapter 4 Electrostatics **

4-1 Maxwell’s Equations

4-2 Charge and Current Distributions

4-2.1 Charge Densities

4-2.2 Current Density

4-3 Coulomb’s Law

4-3.1 Electric Field due to Multiple Point Charges

4-3.2 Electric Field due to a Charge Distribution

4-4 Gauss’s Law

4-5 Electric Scalar Potential

4-5.1 Electric Potential as a Function of Electric Field

4-5.2 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges

4-5.3 Electric Potential Due to Continuous Distributions

4-5.4 Electric Field as a Function of Electric Potential

4-5.5 Poisson’s Equation

4-6 Conductors

4-6.1 Drift Velocity

4-6.2 Resistance

4-6.3 Joule’s Law

TB7 Resistive Sensors

4-7 Dielectrics

4-7.1 Polarization Field

4-7.2 Dielectric Breakdown

4-8 Electric Boundary Conditions

4-8.1 Dielectric-Conductor Boundary

4-8.2 Conductor-Conductor Boundary

4-9 Capacitance

4-10 Electrostatic Potential Energy

TB8 Supercapacitors as Batteries

4-11 Image Method

TB9 Capacitive Sensors

**Chapter 5 Magnetostatics **

5-1 Magnetic Forces and Torques

5-1.1 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

5-1.2 Magnetic Torque on a Current-Carrying Loop

5-2 The Biot—Savart Law

5-2.1 Magnetic Field due to Surface and Volume Current Distributions

5-2.2 Magnetic Field of a Magnetic Dipole

5-2.3 Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors

5-3 Maxwell’s Magnetostatic Equations

5-3.1 Gauss’s Law for Magnetism

TB10 Electromagnets

5-3.2 Amp` ere’s Law

5-4 Vector Magnetic Potential

5-5 Magnetic Properties of Materials

5-5.1 Electron Orbital and Spin Magnetic Moments

5-5.2 Magnetic Permeability

5-5.3 Magnetic Hysteresis of Ferromagnetic Materials

5-6 Magnetic Boundary Conditions

5-7 Inductance

5-7.1 Magnetic Field in a Solenoid

5-7.2 Self-Inductance

5-7.3 Mutual Inductance

5-8 Magnetic Energy

TB11 Inductive Sensors

**Chapter 6 Maxwell’s Equations for Time-Varying Fields**

6-1 Faraday’s Law

6-2 Stationary Loop in a Time-Varying Magnetic Field

6-3 The Ideal Transformer

6-4 Moving Conductor in a Static Magnetic Field

6-5 The Electromagnetic Generator

6-6 Moving Conductor in a Time-Varying Magnetic Field

TB12 EMF Sensors

6-7 Displacement Current

6-8 Boundary Conditions for Electromagnetics

6-9 Charge-Current Continuity Relation

6-10 Free-Charge Dissipation in a Conductor

6-11 Electromagnetic Potentials

6-11.1 Retarded Potentials

6-11.2 Time-Harmonic Potentials

**Chapter 7 Plane-Wave Propagation **

7-1 Time-Harmonic Fields

7-1.1 Complex Permittivity

7-1.2 Wave Equations

7-2 Plane-Wave Propagation in Lossless Media

7-2.1 Uniform Plane Waves

7-2.2 General Relation Between **E **and **H **319

TB13 RFID Systems

7-3 Wave Polarization

7-3.1 Linear Polarization

7-3.2 Circular Polarization

7-3.3 Elliptical Polarization

TB14 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

7-4 Plane-Wave Propagation in Lossy Media

7-4.1 Low-Loss Dielectric

7-4.2 Good Conductor

7-5 Current Flow in a Good Conductor

7-6 Electromagnetic Power Density

7-6.1 Plane Wave in a Lossless Medium

7-6.2 Plane Wave in a Lossy Medium

7-6.3 Decibel Scale for Power Ratios

**Chapter 8 Wave Reflection and Transmission**

8-1 Wave Reflection and Transmission at Normal Incidence

8-1.1 Boundary between Lossless Media

8-1.2 Transmission-Line Analogue

8-1.3 Power Flow in Lossless Media

8-1.4 Boundary between Lossy Media

8-2 Snell’s Laws

8-3 Fiber Optics

TB15 Lasers

8-4 Wave Reflection and Transmission at Oblique Incidence

8-4.1 Perpendicular Polarization

8-4.2 Parallel Polarization

8-4.3 Brewster Angle

8-5 Reflectivity and Transmissivity

TB16 Bar-Code Readers

8-6 Waveguides

8-7 General Relations for **E **and **H **

8-8 TM Modes in Rectangular Waveguide

8-9 TE Modes in Rectangular Waveguide

8-10 Propagation Velocities

8-11 Cavity Resonators

8-11.1 Resonant Frequency

8-11.2 Quality Factor

**Chapter 9 Radiation and Antennas **

9-1 The Hertzian Dipole

9-1.1 Far-Field Approximation

9-1.2 Power Density

9-2 Antenna Radiation Characteristics

9-2.1 Antenna Pattern

9-2.2 Beam Dimensions

9-2.3 Antenna Directivity

9-2.4 Antenna Gain

9-2.5 Radiation Resistance

9-3 Half-Wave Dipole Antenna

9-3.1 Directivity of *λ/*2 Dipole

9-3.2 Radiation Resistance of *λ/*2 Dipole

9-3.3 Quarter-Wave Monopole Antenna

9-4 Dipole of Arbitrary Length

TB17 Health Risks of EM Fields

9-5 Effective Area of a Receiving Antenna

9-6 Friis Transmission Formula

9-7 Radiation by Large-Aperture Antennas

9-8 Rectangular Aperture with Uniform Aperture Distribution

9-8.1 Beamwidth

9-8.2 Directivity and Effective Area

9-9 Antenna Arrays

9-10 *N*-Element Array with Uniform Phase Distribution

9-11 Electronic Scanning of Arrays

9-11.1 Uniform-Amplitude Excitation

9-11.2 Array Feeding

**Chapter 10 Satellite Communication Systems and Radar Sensors**

10-1 Satellite Communication Systems

10-2 Satellite Transponders

10-3 Communication-Link Power Budget

10-4 Antenna Beams

10-5 Radar Sensors

10-5.1 Basic Operation of a Radar System

10-5.2 Unambiguous Range

10-5.3 Range and Angular Resolutions

10-6 Target Detection

10-7 Doppler Radar

10-8 Monopulse Radar

**Appendix A Symbols, Quantities, Units, and Abbreviations**

**Appendix B Material Constants of Some Common Materials**

**Appendix C Mathematical Formulas **

**Appendix D Answers to Selected Problems**

**Bibliography **

**Index **