NOTE: All chapters conclude with a Chapter Summary, Problem-Solving Summary, Conceptual Questions, Conceptual Exercises, and Problems. (Chapter 1 does not include a Problem-Solving Summary.)

** **

**1 Introduction to Physics**

1-1 Physics and the Laws of Nature

1-2 Units of Length, Mass, and Time

1-3 Dimensional Analysis** **

1-4 Significant Figures

1-5 Converting Units

1-6 Order-of-Magnitude Calculations

1-7 Scalars and Vectors

1-8 Problem Solving in Physics

**PART I MECHANICS**

**2 One-Dimensional Kinematics**

2-1 Position, Distance, and Displacement

2-2 Average Speed and Velocity

2-3 Instantaneous Velocity

2-4 Acceleration

2-5 Motion with Constant Acceleration

2-6 Applications of the Equations of Motion

2-7 Freely Falling Objects

**3 Vectors in Physics **

3-1 Scalars Versus Vectors

3-2 The Components of a Vector

3-3 Adding and Subtracting Vectors

3-4 Unit Vectors

3-5 Position, Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors

3-6 Relative Motion

**4 Two-Dimensional Kinematics**

4-1 Motion in Two Dimensions

4-2 Projectile Motion: Basic Equations

4-3 Zero Launch Angle

4-4 General Launch Angle

4-5 Projective Motion: Key Characteristics

**5 Newton’s Laws of Motion**

5-1 Force and Mass

5-2 Newton’s First Law of Motion

5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

5-4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

5-5 The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in Two Dimensions

5-6 Weight

5-7 Normal Forces

**6 Applications of Newton’s Laws**

6-1 Frictional Forces

6-2 Strings and Springs

6-3 Translational Equilibrium

6-4 Connected Objects

6-5 Circular Motion

**7 Work and Kinetic Energy**

7-1 Work Done by a Constant Force

7-2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem

7-3 Work Done by a Variable Force

7-4 Power

**8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy**

8-1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

8-2 Potential Energy and the Work Done by Conservative Forces

8-3 Conservation of Mechanical Energy

8-4 Work Done by Nonconservative Forces

8-5 Potential Energy Curves and Equipotentials

**9 Linear Momentum and Collisions**

9-1 Linear Momentum

9-2 Momentum and Newton’s Second Law

9-3 Impulse

9-4 Conservation of Linear Momentum

9-5 Inelastic Collisions

9-6 Elastic Collisions

9-7 Center of Mass

*9-8 Systems with Changing Mass: Rocket Propulsion

**10 Rotational Kinematics and Energy **

10-1 Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration

10-2 Rotational Kinematics

10-3 Connections Between Linear and Rotational Quantities

10-4 Rolling Motion

10-5 Rotational Kinetic Energy and the Moment of Inertia

10-6 Conservation of Energy

**11 Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium**

11-1 Torque

11-2 Torque and Angular Acceleration

11-3 Zero Torque and Static Equilibrium

11-4 Center of Mass and Balance

11-5 Dynamic Applications of Torque

11-6 Angular Momentum

11-7 Conservation of Angular Momentum

11-8 Rotational Work and Power

*11-9 The Vector Nature of Rotational Motion

**12 Gravity **

12-1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies

12-3 Kepler’s Laws of Orbital Motion

12-4 Gravitational Potential Energy

12-5 Energy Conservation

*12-6 Tides

**13 Oscillations About Equilibrium**

13-1 Periodic Motion

13-2 Simple Harmonic Motion

13-3 Connections Between Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion

13-4 The Period of a Mass on a Spring

13-5 Energy Conservation in Oscillatory Motion

13-6 The Pendulum

13-7 Damped Oscillations

13-8 Driven Oscillations and Resonance

**14 Waves and Sound**

14-1 Types of Waves

14-2 Waves on a String

*14-3 Harmonic Wave Functions

14-4 Sound Waves

14-5 Sound Intensity

14-6 The Doppler Effect

14-7 Superposition and Interference

14-8 Standing Waves

14-9 Beats

**15 ****Fluids**

15-1 Density

15-2 Pressure

15-3 Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth

15-4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy

15-5 Applications of Archimedes’ Principle

15-6 Fluid Flow and Continuity

15-7 Bernoulli’s Equation

15-8 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

*15-9 Viscosity and Surface Tension

**PART II THERMAL PHYSICS** ** **

**16 ****Temperature and Heat**

16-1 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

16-2 Temperature Scales

16-3 Thermal Expansion

16-4 Heat and Mechanical Work

16-5 Specific Heats

16-6 Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

**17 ****Phases and Phase Changes**

17-1 Ideal Gases

17-2 Kinetic Theory

17-3 Solids and Elastic Deformation

17-4 Phase Equilibrium and Evaporation

17-5 Latent Heats

17-6 Phase Changes and Energy Conservation

**18 ****The Laws of Thermodynamics**

18-1 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

18-2 The First Law of Thermodynamics

18-3 Thermal Processes

18-4 Specific Heats for an Ideal Gas: Constant Pressure, Constant Volume

18-5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

18-6 Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

18-7 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

18-8 Entropy

18-9 Order, Disorder, and Entropy

18-10 The Third Law of Thermodynamics

**PART III ELECTROMAGNETISM**

**19 Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields** 19-1 Electric Charge

19-2 Insulators and Conductors

19-3 Coulomb’s Law

19-4 The Electric Field

19-5 Electric Field Lines

19-6 Shielding and Charging by Induction

19-7 Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law

**20 Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy** 20-1 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential

20-2 Energy Conservation

20-3 The Electric Potential of Point Charges

20-4 Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field

20-5 Capacitors and Dielectrics

20-6 Electrical Energy Storage

**21 Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits** 21-1 Electric Current

21-2 Resistance and Ohm’s Law

21-3 Energy and Power in Electric Circuits

21-4 Resistors in Series and Parallel

21-5 Kirchoff’s Rules

21-6 Circuits Containing Capacitors

21-7 *RC* Circuits

*21-8 Anmeters and Voltmeters

**22 Magnetism** 21-1 The Magnetic Field

22-2 The Magnetic Force on Moving Charges

22-3 The Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field

22-4 The Magnetic Force Exerted on a Current-Carrying Wire

22-5 Loops of Current and Magnetic Torque

22-6 Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, and Ampère’s Law

22-7 Current Loops and Solenoids

22-8 Magnetism in Matter

**23 Magnetic Flux and Faraday’s Law of Induction** 23-1 Induced Electromotive Force

23-2 Magnetic Flux

23-3 Faraday’s Law of Induction

23-4 Lenz’s Law

23-5 Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy

23-6 Generators and Motors

23-7 Inductance

23-8 *RL* Circuits

23-9 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field

23-10 Transformers

**24 Alternating-Current Circuits** 24-1 Alternating Voltages and Currents

24-2 Capacitors in AC Circuits

24-3 *RC* Circuits

24-4 Inductors in AC Circuits

24-5 *RLC* Circuits

24-6 Resonance in Electrical Circuits

**PART IV LIGHT AND OPTICS** ** ** **25 Electromagnetic Waves** 25-1 The Production of Electromagnetic Waves

25-2 The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

25-3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

25-4 Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Waves

25-5 Polarization

**26 Geometrical Optics** 26-1 The Reflection of Light

26-2 Forming Images with a Plane Mirror

26-3 Spherical Mirrors

26-4 Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation

26-5 The Refraction of Light

26-6 Ray Tracing for Lenses

26-7 The Thin-Lens Equation

26-8 Dispersion and the Rainbow

**27 Optical Instruments** 27-1 The Human Eye and the Camera

27-2 Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics

27-3 The Magnifying Glass

27-4 The Compound Microscope

27-5 Telescopes

27-6 Lens Aberrations

**28 Physical Optics: Interference and Diffraction** 28-1 Superposition and Interference

28-2 Young’s Two-Slit Experiment

28-3 Interference in Reflected Waves

28-4 Diffraction

28-5 Resolution

28-6 Diffraction Gratings

**PART V MODERN PHYSICS**

**29 Relativity** 29-1 The Postulates of Special Relativity

29-2 The Relativity of Time and Time Dilation

29-3 The Relativity of Length and Length Contraction

29-4 The Relativistic Addition of Velocities

29-5 Relativistic Momentum

29-6 Relativistic Energy and *E = mc*^{2}

29-7 The Relativistic Universe

29-8 General Relativity

**30 Quantum Physics** 30-1 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Hypothesis of Quantized Energy

30-2 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect

30-3 The Mass and Momentum of a Photos

30-4 Photon Scattering and the Compton Effect

30-5 The de Broglie Hypothesis and Wave-Particle Duality

30-6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

30-7 Quantum Tunneling

**31 Atomic Physics** 31-1 Early Models of the Atom

31-2 The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen

31-3 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom

31-4 de Broglie Waves and the Bohr Model

31-5 The Quantum Mechanical Hydrogen Atom

31-6 Multielectron Atoms and the Periodic Table

31-7 Atomic Radiation

**32 Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Radiation** 32-1 The Constituents and Structure of Nuclei

32-2 Radioactivity

32-3 Half-Life and Radioactive Dating

32-4 Nuclear Binding Energy

32-5 Nuclear Fission

32-6 Nuclear Fusion

32-7 Practical Applications of Nuclear Physics

32-8 Elementary Particles

32-9 Unified Forces and Cosmology

**Appendices** Appendix A: Basic Mathematical Tools

Appendix B: Typical Values

Appendix C: Planetary Data

Appendix D: Elements of Electrical Circuits

Appendix E: Periodic Table of the Elements

Appendix F: Properties of Selected Isotopes

Answers to Your Turn Problems

Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Questions

Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Exercises

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems