## Table of Contents

Preface XV

** **

**1 Measurement and Problem Solving **1

**Insight: **1.1 Why Study Physics? 2

1.1 Why and How We Measure 2

1.2 SI Units of Length, Mass, and Time 3

**Insight: **1.2 What Is Time? 6

1.3 More about the Metric System 7

1.4 Unit Analysis 10

1.5 Unit Conversions 12

**Insight: **1.3 Is Unit Conversion Important? 16

1.6 Significant Figures 17

1.7 Problem Solving 20

**Chapter Review **24 **Exercises **25

** **

**2 Kinematics: Description of Motion **32

2.1 Distance and Speed: Scalar Quantities 33

2.2 One-Dimensional Displacement and Velocity: Vector Quantities 35

**Learn by Drawing: **Cartesian Coordinates and One-Dimensional Displacement 35

2.3 Acceleration 40

**Learn by Drawing: **Signs of Velocity and Acceleration 42

2.4 Kinematic Equations (Constant Acceleration) 45

2.5 Free Fall 49

**Insight: **2.1 Galileo Galilei and the Leaning Tower of Pisa 51

**Chapter Review **56 **Exercises **57

** **

**3 Motion in Two Dimensions **67

3.1 Components of Motion 68

3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction 73

**Learn by Drawing: **Make a Sketch and Add Them Up 80

3.3 Projectile Motion 81

3.4 Relative Velocity 90

**Chapter Review **94 **Exercises **95

** **

**4 Force and Motion **103

4.1 The Concepts of Force and Net Force 104

4.2 Inertia and Newton’s First Law of Motion 105

4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 106

**Insight: **4.1 *g*’*s *of Force and Effects on the Human Body 108

4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 112

**Insight: **4.2 Sailing into the Wind–Tacking 115

4.5 More on Newton’s Laws: Free-Body Diagrams and Translational Equilibrium 116

**Learn by Drawing: **Forces on an Object on an Inclined Plane and Free-body Diagrams 116

4.6 Friction 121

**Chapter Review **130 **Exercises **131

** **

**5 Work and Energy **140

5.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 141

**Learn by Drawing: **Work: Area under the *F*-versus-*x *Curve 142

**Learn by Drawing: **Determining the Sign of Work 143

5.2 Work Done by a Variable Force 145

5.3 The Work—Energy Theorem: Kinetic Energy 148

5.4 Potential Energy 152

5.5 Conservation of Energy 155

**Insight: **5.1 People Power: Using Body Energy 156

**Learn by Drawing: **Energy Exchanges: A Falling Ball 161

5.6 Power 164

**Insight: **5.2 Hybrid Energy Conversion 164

**Chapter Review **168 **Exercises **169

** **

**6 Linear Momentum and Collisions **177

6.1 Linear Momentum 178

6.2 Impulse 182

6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 185

**Insight: **6.1 The Automobile Air Bag and Martian Air Bags 186

6.4 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 191

6.5 Center of Mass 198

6.6 Jet Propulsion and Rockets 204

**Chapter Review **207 **Exercises **207

** **

**7 Circular Motion and Gravitation **216

7.1 Angular Measure 217

7.2 Angular Speed and Velocity 219

**Learn by Drawing: **The Small-Angle Approximation 219

7.3 Uniform Circular Motion and Centripetal Acceleration 223

**Insight: **7.1 The Centrifuge: Separating Blood Components 225

7.4 Angular Acceleration 228

7.5 Newton’s Law of Gravitation 231

**Insight: **7.2 Space Exploration: Gravity Assists 238

7.6 Kepler’s Laws and Earth Satellites 238

**Insight: **7.3 “Weightlessness”: Effects on the Human Body 245

**Chapter Review **247 **Exercises **248

** **

**8 Rotational Motion and Equilibrium **256

8.1 Rigid Bodies, Translations, and Rotations 257

8.2 Torque, Equilibrium, and Stability 259

8.3 Rotational Dynamics 270

**Insight: **8.1 Stability in Action 271

8.4 Rotational Work and Kinetic Energy 277

8.5 Angular Momentum 280

**Insight: **8.2 Slide or Roll to a Stop? Antilock Brakes 281

**Chapter Review **287 **Exercises **288

** **

**9 Solids and Fluids **297

9.1 Solids and Elastic Moduli 298

9.2 Fluids: Pressure and Pascal’s Principle 302

**Insight: **9.1 Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) 304

**Insight: **9.2 An Atmospheric Effect: Possible Earaches 311

**Insight: **9.3 Blood Pressure and Its Measurement 312

9.3 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle 313

9.4 Fluid Dynamics and Bernoulli’s Equation 319

*9.5 Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Poiseuille’s Law 324

**Insight: **9.4 The Lungs and Baby’s First Breath 325

**Chapter Review **329 **Exercises **330

** **

**10 Temperature and Kinetic Theory **338

10.1 Temperature and Heat 339

10.2 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature Scales 340

**Insight: **10.1 Human Body Temperature 343

10.3 Gas Laws, Absolute Temperature, and the Kelvin Temperature Scale 343

**Insight: **10.2 Warm-Blooded versus Cold-Blooded 344

10.4 Thermal Expansion 350

**Learn by Drawing: **Thermal Area Expansion 351

10.5 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 354

**Insight: **10.3 Physiological Diffusion in Life Processes 357

*10.6 Kinetic Theory, Diatomic Gases, and the Equipartition Theorem 357

**Chapter Review **360 **Exercises **361

** **

**11 Heat **367

11.1 Definition and Units of Heat 368

11.2 Specific Heat and Calorimetry 370

11.3 Phase Changes and Latent Heat 374

**Learn by Drawing: **From Cold Ice to Hot Steam 377

11.4 Heat Transfer 379

**Insight: **11.1 Physiological Regulation of Body Temperature 380

**Insight: **11.2 Physics, the Construction Industry, and Energy Conservation 384

**Insight: **11.3 The Greenhouse Effect 388

**Chapter Review **390 **Exercises **391

** **

**12 Thermodynamics **397

12.1 Thermodynamic Systems, States, and Processes 398

12.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics 399

12.3 Thermodynamic Processes for an Ideal Gas 403

**Learn by Drawing: **Leaning on Isotherms 409

12.4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy 410

**Insight: **12.1 Life, Order, and the Second Law 414

12.5 Heat Engines and Thermal Pumps 414

**Learn by Drawing: **Representing Work in Thermal Cycles 415

**Insight: **12.2 Thermodynamics and the Human Body 420

12.6 The Carnot Cycle and Ideal Heat Engines 422

**Chapter Review **425 **Exercises **426

** **

**13 Vibrations and Waves **433

13.1 Simple Harmonic Motion 434

**Learn by Drawing: **Oscillating in a Parabolic Potential Well 437

13.2 Equations of Motion 439

13.3 Wave Motion 446

13.4 Wave Properties 449

**Insight: **13.1 Earthquakes, Seismic Waves, and Seismology 450

13.5 Standing Waves and Resonance 454

**Insight: **13.2 Desirable and Undesirable Resonances 458

**Chapter Review **459 **Exercises **460

** **

**14 Sound **467

14.1 Sound Waves 468

**Insight: **14.1 Ultrasound in Medicine 470

14.2 The Speed of Sound 471

14.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Intensity Level 474

**Insight: **14.2 The Physiology and Physics of the Ear and Hearing 475

14.4 Sound Phenomena 481

14.5 The Doppler Effect 484

**Insight: **14.3 Doppler Applications: Blood Cells and Raindrops 490

14.6 Musical Instruments and Sound Characteristics 491

**Chapter Review **496 **Exercises **498

** **

**15 Electric Charge, Forces, and Fields **505

15.1 Electric Charge 506

15.2 Electrostatic Charging 508

15.3 Electric Force 512

15.4 Electric Field 517

**Learn by Drawing: **Using the Superposition Principle to Determine the Electric Field Direction 518

**Learn by Drawing: **Sketching Electric Lines of Force 521

**Insight: **15.1 Lightning and Lightning Rods 523

**Insight: **15.2 Electric Fields in Law Enforcement and Nature: Stun Guns and Electric Fish 524

15.5 Conductors and Electric Fields 526

*15.6 Gauss’s Law for Electric Fields: A Qualitative Approach 528

**Chapter Review **529 **Exercises **530

** **

**16 Electric Potential, Energy, and Capacitance **536

16.1 Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential Difference 537

**Learn by Drawing: **¢V Is Independent of Reference Point 538

16.2 Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field 543

**Learn by Drawing: **Graphical Relationship between Electric Field Lines and Equipotentials 547

16.3 Capacitance 549

**Insight: **16.1 Electric Potential and Nerve Signal Transmission 552

16.4 Dielectrics 552

16.5 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel 557

**Chapter Review **561 **Exercises **562

** **

**17 Electric Current and Resistance **568

17.1 Batteries and Direct Current 569

**Learn by Drawing: **Sketching Circuits 571

17.2 Current and Drift Velocity 571

17.3 Resistance and Ohm’s Law 573

**Insight: **17.1 The “Bio-Generation” of High Voltage 575

**Insight: **17.2 Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) 578

17.4 Electric Power 580

**Chapter Review **585 **Exercises **586

** **

**18 Basic Electric Circuits **591

18.1 Resistances in Series, Parallel, and Series—Parallel Combinations 592

18.2 Multiloop Circuits and Kirchhoff’s Rules 599

**Learn by Drawing: **Kirchhoff Plots: A Graphical Interpretation of Kirchhoff’s Loop Theorem 602

18.3 RC Circuits 604

18.4 Ammeters and Voltmeters 607

**Insight: **18.1 Applications of RC Circuits to Cardiac Medicine 608

18.5 Household Circuits and Electrical Safety 611

**Insight: **18.2 Electricity and Personal Safety 614

**Chapter Review **615 **Exercises **616

** **

**19 Magnetism **623

19.1 Magnets, Magnetic Poles, and Magnetic Field Direction 624

19.2 Magnetic Field Strength and Magnetic Force 626

19.3 Applications: Charged Particles in Magnetic Fields 629

19.4 Magnetic Forces on Current-Carrying Wires 632

19.5 Applications: Current-Carrying Wires in Magnetic Fields 635

19.6 Electromagnetism: The Source of Magnetic Fields 637

19.7 Magnetic Materials 641

**Insight: **19.1 The Magnetic Force in Future Medicine 642

*19.8 Geomagnetism: The Earth’s Magnetic Field 644

**Insight: **19.2 Magnetism in Nature 645

**Chapter Review **647 **Exercises **648

** **

**20 Electromagnetic Induction and Waves **656

20.1 Induced emf: Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law 657

20.2 Electric Generators and Back emf 663

**Insight: **20.1 Electromagnetic Induction at Work: Flashlights and Antiterrorism 664

**Insight: **20.2 Electromagnetic Induction at Play: Hobbies and Transportation 666

20.3 Transformers and Power Transmission 668

20.4 Electromagnetic Waves 672

**Chapter Review **679 **Exercises **679

** **

**21 AC Circuits **686

21.1 Resistance in an AC Circuit 687

21.2 Capacitive Reactance 689

21.3 Inductive Reactance 691

21.4 Impedance: RLC Circuits 693

21.5 Circuit Resonance 697

**Insight: **21.1 Oscillator Circuits: Broadcasters of Electromagnetic Radiation 699

**Chapter Review **700 **Exercises **701

** **

**22 Reflection and Refraction of Light **705

22.1 Wave Fronts and Rays 706

22.2 Reflection 707

22.3 Refraction 708

**Learn by Drawing: **Tracing the Reflected Rays 708

**Insight: **22.1 A Dark, Rainy Night 709

**Insight: **22.2 Negative Index of Refraction and the “Perfect” Lens 715

22.4 Total Internal Reflection and Fiber Optics 717

**Insight: **22.3 Fiber Optics: Medical Applications 720

22.5 Dispersion 721

**Insight: **22.4 The Rainbow 722

**Chapter Review **723 **Exercises **724

** **

**23 Mirrors and Lenses **729

23.1 Plane Mirrors 730

23.2 Spherical Mirrors 732

**Insight: **23.1 It’s All Done with Mirrors 733

**Learn by Drawing: **A Mirror Ray Diagram (see Example 23.2) 734

23.3 Lenses 740

**Learn by Drawing: **A Lens Ray Diagram (see Example 23.5) 743

**Insight: **23.2 Fresnel Lenses 748

23.4 The Lens Maker’s Equation 750

*23.5 Lens Aberrations 752

**Chapter Review **753 **Exercises **754

** **

**24 Physical Optics: The Wave Nature of Light **760

24.1 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment 761

24.2 Thin-Film Interference 764

**Insight: **24.1 Nonreflecting Lenses 768

24.3 Diffraction 768

24.4 Polarization 775

**Learn by Drawing: **Three Polarizers (see Integrated Example 24.6.) 778

*24.5 Atmospheric Scattering of Light 782

**Insight: **24.2 LCDs and Polarized Light 783

**Insight: **24.3 Optical Biopsy 785

**Chapter Review **785 **Exercises **786

** **

**25 Vision and Optical Instruments **792

25.1 The Human Eye 793

**Insight: **25.1 Cornea “Orthodontics” and Surgery 797

25.2 Microscopes 799

25.3 Telescopes 803

25.4 Diffraction and Resolution 807

**Insight: **25.2 Telescopes Using Nonvisible Radiation 808

*25.5 Color 810

**Chapter Review **813 **Exercises **814

** **

**26 Relativity **819

26.1 Classical Relativity and the Michelson—Morley Experiment 820

26.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity and the Relativity of Simultaneity 822

26.3 The Relativity of Length and Time: Time Dilation and Length Contraction 825

26.4 Relativistic Kinetic Energy, Momentum, Total Energy, and Mass—Energy Equivalence 833

26.5 The General Theory of Relativity 837

**Insight: **26.1 Relativity in Everyday Living 838

*26.6 Relativistic Velocity Addition 841

**Insight: **26.2 Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and LIGO 842

**Chapter Review **844 **Exercises **845

** **

**27 Quantum Physics **851

27.1 Quantization: Planck’s Hypothesis 852

27.2 Quanta of Light: Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 854

**Learn by Drawing: **The Photoelectric Effect and Energy Conservation 856

27.3 Quantum “Particles”: The Compton Effect 858

27.4 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 860

27.5 A Quantum Success: The Laser 866

**Insight: **27.1 CD and DVD Systems 869

**Insight: **27.2 Lasers in Modern Medicine 870

**Chapter Review **871 **Exercises **873

** **

**28 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Physics **877

28.1 Matter Waves: The de Broglie Hypothesis 878

28.2 The Schrödinger Wave Equation 881

**Insight: **28.1 The Electron Microscope 883

**Insight: **28.2 The Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) 884

28.3 Atomic Quantum Numbers and the Periodic Table 885

**Insight: **28.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 888

28.4 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 894

28.5 Particles and Antiparticles 896

**Chapter Review **897 **Exercises **898

** **

**29 The Nucleus **902

29.1 Nuclear Structure and the Nuclear Force 903

29.2 Radioactivity 906

29.3 Decay Rate and Half-Life 911

29.4 Nuclear Stability and Binding Energy 917

29.5 Radiation Detection, Dosage, and Applications 922

**Insight: **29.1 Biological and Medical Applications of Radiation 927

**Chapter Review **929 **Exercises **930

** **

**30 Nuclear Reactions and Elementary Particles **935

30.1 Nuclear Reactions 936

30.2 Nuclear Fission 939

30.3 Nuclear Fusion 944

30.4 Beta Decay and the Neutrino 946

30.5 Fundamental Forces and Exchange Particles 948

30.6 Elementary Particles 951

30.7 The Quark Model 953

30.8 Force Unification Theories, the Standard Model, and the Early Universe 954

**Chapter Review **956 **Exercises **957

** **

**APPENDIX I **Mathematical Review (with Examples) for College Physics A-1

**APPENDIX II **Kinetic Theory of Gases A-5

**APPENDIX III **Planetary Data A-6

**APPENDIX IV **Alphabetical Listing of the Chemical Elements A-7

**APPENDIX V **Properties of Selected Isotopes A-7

Answers to Follow-Up Exercises A-10

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises A-18

Photo Credits P-1

Index I-1